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Bence-Jones protein (BJP)

Category Biochemistry >> Proteins
Test background

BJP is a paraprotein immunoglobulin free Kappa or Lambda light chain produced by neoplastic plasma cells. Light chains can be immunoglobulin fragments or single homogenous immunoglobulins. They are found in urine as they are small and hence easily cleared by the kidneys.

Clinical Indications

Approximately 20% of cases of myeloma do not have a detectable intact immunoglobulin. It is recommended that serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light chains (sFLC) are used to determine the presence of a paraprotein, which may indicate possible myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (NG35). Do not use serum protein electrophoresis, sFLC or BJP alone to exclude a diagnosis of myeloma.

BJP analysis may prove useful where there are marginally increases/decreases in the serum free light chain ratio. Consider measurement of BJP in cases of AL amyloidosis.

Reference range

Qualitative test (positive/negative)

Sample & container required 24 hour urine collection. If you wish to send a random urine please discuss with the laboratory on 0203 3135901/15187.
Sample volume Random urine: 5 mLor 24 hour urine collection
Transport storage Please freeze pending dispatch for analysis. Sample can be sent by first class post.
Turnaround time Up to 2 weeks

BJP may not be observed in non-secretory forms of multiple myeloma.

Acidified samples are unsuitable for this assay.