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Category Biochemistry >> Trace elements
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Trace elements can be essential or toxic. Trace element toxicity can occur as a result of occupational exposure, environmental exposure or iatrogenic toxicity. Any organ can be affected: the central nervous system, liver, kidneys, muscles or circulatory system. All elements can be toxic in excess. Those most commonly associated with toxicity include: aluminium, lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, thallium, barium, germanium, tellurium, tin, antimony, osmium, uranium.

Clinicial Indications

Acute exposure can result in cardiac and renal failure. Other symptoms from exposure include bone disease and possible liver disease.

Reference range
Non-smokers <27 nmol/L
Smokers <54 nmol/L
Urine <10 nmol/mmol creatinine
Sample & container required Blood: EDTA (lavender top) or heparin (green top) Urine: universal container for random sample or 24 hour collection
Sample volume Blood: 0.5 mL Urine: 0.5 mL or 24 hour urine collection
Turnaround time 2 weeks

There are increased levels of cadmium in smokers.