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Category Biochemistry
Test background

Serum chloride varies as a function of the body's water and electrolyte homeostasis, in addition to being an index of acid-base. Chloride levels are largely regulated by the action of the kidneys and deranged amounts typically correlate with renal impairment.

Clinical Indications

Hyperchloraemia: indicates dehydration and is associated with hypernatraemia. Elevated levels also correspond to metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis (through hyperventilation)
Hypochloraemia: typically associated with hyponatraemia but also occurs with prolonged vomiting or gastric suction, chronic diarrhoea, emphysema, COPD and metabolic alkalosis

Reference range

Blood: 95-108 mmol/L
Urine: no reference interval

Sample & container required SST (gold top) 24 hour urine collection
Sample volume Blood: 0.5 mL Urine: 24 hour collection
Turnaround time Blood: 1 day Urine: 2 days