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Category Biochemistry
Test background

Citrate is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In urine it forms soluble complexes with cations such as Ca++, Mg++ and Fe++, thus inhibiting urinary crystallisation and stone formation. Low levels of urinary citrate excretion (<1.0 mmol/24 h) may be found in patients with distal renal tubular acidosis, malabsorption syndrome and urinary tract infection.

Clinicial Indications

Monitoring therapy for renal stones
Identifying decreased urinary citrate as a risk factor for stone formation
Investigation of renal tubular acidosis

Reference range

See report

Sample & container required Random urine sample in universal container or 24 hour urine collection (acidified optional)
Sample volume Random urine: 8 mL or 24 hour urine collection
Turnaround time Up to 6 weeks

May be done on the same sample as oxalate.
Not currently performed in house; this is a referred test.