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Insulin

Category Biochemistry >> Endocrinology
Test background

Proinsulin is cleaved to form connecting peptide (C-peptide) and insulin prior to secretion into the portal circulation. Insulin is integral to carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism with utility in cellular glucose uptake, increased glycogen synthesis, enhanced triglyceride turnover and fatty acid esterification in the adipose tissue. Insulin also mediates reduced gluconeogenesis and lipolysis, increased potassium re-uptake, arterial vasodilation and diminished protein catabolism.

Clinical Indications

Evaluation of fasting hypoglycaemia β-cell tumours or factitious causes, eg. abuse of sulphonylureas/exogenous insulin Assessment of fasting insulin resistance in PCOS

Reference range

Fasting: 3-15 mIU/L

Sample & container required SST (gold top) or serum (red top) on ice rush to laboratory
Sample volume 1 mL
Sample collection

Collect into tube on ice, separate in a chilled centrifuge and freeze immediately.

Transport storage Send to lab frozen.
Turnaround time 1 week
Notes

Grossly haemolysed samples are unsuitable for this assay.