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Protein (urine)

Category Biochemistry
Test background

Glomerular proteinuria results from increased transcapillary passage of proteins and is characterised by the loss of plasma proteins equal to or greater than albumin, eg. glomerular nephritis, nephritic syndromes and chronic kidney disease.
Tubular proteinuria results from a decrease in the capacity of the tubules to reabsorb protein and results in an increase in excretion of low molecular weight proteins, eg. Fanconi syndrome.
Overflow proteinuria occurs when increased serum concentrations of proteins of low molecular mass are filtered through the glomerulus and exceed the reabsorptive capacity of tubules, eg. Bence-Jones proteinuria, haemoglobinuria, myoglobinuria.

Clinical Indications

Diagnosis of nephrotic syndromes
Diagnosis and monitoring of pre-eclampsia
Monitoring of (early) chronic kidney disease
Monitoring myelomatous disease

Reference range

Random: <20 mg/mmol creatinine 24 hour urine collection: <0.15 g/24 h

Sample & container required Random urine (preferred) or 24 hour urine collection
Sample volume Random urine: 1 mL or 24 hour urine collection
Turnaround time Random urine: 1 day 24 hour urine: 2 days